Its the longest 4 years I’ve ever known

undated, post mark 3 July 19, no address.

My dear old Elsie
My best thanks dear girl for the book you sent me & which came a few days ago – I havent had a chance of starting it yet but it looks very exciting I am looking forward ever so much to the parcel you mention in your last letter – you are simply too good to me I wish I could be in England now – it must be delightful – but my home leave seems impossible just now – and even 10 days in Cairo is out of the question for some time Major Watson has gone to Hospital with fever and poor old Urwick is marked ‘Base 2 months’ – this makes me Second in command of the Regiment and I shall be an acting Major for a little while but for goodness sake dont address my letters as ‘Major’ as I shall be down to Captain again before very long. We are in a fairly comfortable part of the line now but of course the heat and the flies are very trying and we are passing through quite the worst time of the year just now I get very cheerful letters from home still except that the Pater has a touch of lumbago! I havent heard from Gretchen for ages & ages but I guess all her time is taken up with little Christine – Excuse this scribble I am very short  of candles and the wind keeps blowing this little bit out I get very cheerful letters  from Milsom he is still in Hospital & on crutches but his wife has joined him now from New Zealand so he is delightfully happy -she was torpedoed in the Atlantic and lost all her kit and had a good swim1 -I wish you could meet them We are very bucked with the news from Italy2 and long for further details of what seems to be a great victory for the Allies. The Colonel keeps very well indeed and we are the greatest pals -he feels the loss of all his original officers -Do you know – of all the officers who went to India with him originally only T. Moore & myself are left at present -out of about 30 It is very sad isnt it
Hope you keep fit and by the time this reaches you you will be thinking of packing up for your holidays -I do hope you get good weather
Its the longest 4 years I’ve ever known
Best love dear girl
from Stan

1 The ship in which Mrs Milsom sailed was torpedoed off Ushant on May 19th 1918. She was rescued by the destroyer escorting the convoy. There was no swimming involved because the skilful destroyer captain laid his ship alongside the sinking vessel. But her wedding presents (and golf clubs) were lost. (Information from SFC Milsom, 1996).
2 The Austrian offensive had failed in June.

Next letter July 18th 2018
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Engaged in War – the Letters of Stanley Goodland 1914 – 1919
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mail boat with 3 weeks mail has been lost at sea

E.E.F.
undated, postmarked 24th May 1918, censored

My dear old Elsie
lve just heard that a mail boat with 3 weeks mail has been lost at sea and so Im feeling very fed up. Letters are the only things weve got to look forward to and I havent had one from you for ever so long and now I shant hear for simply ages – its sickening. You will be glad to hear we are going out of the line for two weeks rest in a few days and on the 28th I am going down to Cairo for 10 days with Frank Calway – I am looking forward to it. Its about time Im sure that I had another bath and it will be lovely to sleep in a real bed again. I will write you a long letter from Shepheard and hope youll get it this time I can imagine Minchinhampton is looking quite beautiful this time of year and I only wish I could take a look at it – I often dream my leave is sanctioned but there really seems no chance of it just now – if only things could improve in France1 it would help matters – we get only scanty news of the great struggle in the West – it must all be perfectly awful. I am always busy and Im glad it is so – it helps to keep one cheerful – poor old Urwick came back from hospital with his wound healed and now he has gone down again with fever – I miss him so much I wonder if my letters describing the Guard of Honour to the Duke of Connaught and also all the ones describing all our fighting last month have or will ever reach you. Best love dear girl – hoping you will keep quite fit through the summer

from Stan

1 The Allies had lost ground, lives and material to the German advance on the Somme and south of Ypres

Next letter June 3rd 2018
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very strenuous campaigning in the mountainous country

April 7 1918
E.E.F.

My dear old Elsie
Your last letter of Mar 14 came today and I thought I would send you a few lines right away to tell you I am all right.
I hope little Ronald will soon be quite well again and am glad to hear you are getting fat or fatter I should say. I dont know how you do on the restricted rations. The Colonel is back again but we are so much ‘in the fighting’ now that Im afraid my chances of leave at present are very small but I still hope it will be O.K. We are gradually closing in on Shekhem1 and the dear old Regiment is doing splendidly and adding fresh laurels almost every day. Fortunately up to now our casualties are not heavy but we are up against Germans2 now and its very strenuous campaigning in the mountainous country. We hear all sorts of rumours of great doings in France3 and I only hope & pray our wonderful army can hold out and kill & keep on killing Huns until they are bound to give in! It is really awful this waste of the worlds manhood. We are all excitement today for we have a big thing4 on in few hours time – it means a lot of work for me but I dont care a bit so long as the old 1/5th do well and lye no fear of that. The Pater writes very cheerful letters thank goodness and I had a very welcome letter today too from little Gretchen who is bursting with pride over Christine. I do hope my letters are reaching you. I have written quite a lot lately.
Well best love dear girl and loving thoughts always
from Stan

1 now Nablus.
2 Liman von Sanders, German hero of the Turco/German defeat of the Allies at Gallipoli, had become C-in-C of the Turco/German army in Palestine on March 1st 1918.
3 The Ludendorff offensive in France had begun on March 31st.
4 Attack to secure the line Berukin-Arara-Rafat

Next letter April 30th 2018
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a lovely lot of letters from you

Also salvaged, date missing

My dear old Elsie

I had a lovely lot of letters from you this month, thanks ever so much dear –  the last is dated feb.18th. Im back with the old Regiment again at last – I was away 10 days and it seemed ages – I hate to be away really. It was a long march from the Rest Camp 20 miles all through most wonderful hills. We are going to advance gradually still further and my letters in the near future may be irregular again but Ill send a few lines whenever I can. We have received many congratulations over the Guard of Honour stunt and it’s nice to feel everyone is pleased. The position we are in now is almost indescribable – I thought nothing in the World could beat Switzerland but this seems grander and more vast – you would love the wild flowers I wish I could send you a bunch – outside my dug out arum lilies, black & white tulips – orchids and 20 other kinds and colours I cant name – its a glorious sight. Im awfully fit and couldnt be other wise in this hill air.

This is only a short letter this time –  best love dear girl

From Stan

Next letter April 7th 2018
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Complimented on a fine body of men

This OHMS envelope has written on it: “Salved from Submerged Mail” and is addressed to:
Miss Elsie Hyde
“Highcroft”
Minchinhampton
Glos.

The next two letters have clearly been wet and are difficult to read. They were written in ink, which has run. The letter starts in pencil but continues in ink after the first half page; the pencil is obscured by the ink seepage, but the rest of the letter is possible to read:

17 March 1918

My dear old Elsie
I little thought a few years ago that I should be taking part in such an historic ceremony. The weather yesterday unfortunately was stormy and at the last moment it was decided to adjourn to the large building in Ramleh town known as the Convent It was rather a pity as the whole thing would have looked better in the open air. The Duke drove up in a car with the Commander in Chief and we gave him a “Royal Salute” and then he came over to the Guard of Honour and I was introduced to him and to the Commander in Chief. He then inspected the men and chatted away the whole time asking questions about the Regiment and he stopped and spoke to many of the men –  Afterwards he shook hands with me and complimented me on a very fine body of men. And really they did look well & our band of 48 men and buglers were paraded with us and created quite an impression.

The next thing was the presentation of decorations and there were such a great many of General Staff Officers and all the brass of the Army in Palestine –  I had to march up to have my Military Cross  pinned on and it is such a handsome thing – Im having it engraved and sent home for the Pater to keep for me for Im sure I should lose it out here. We now have a long trek back to the Regiment all through the hills – just before we left we advanced about 6 miles on our front but thanks to our artillery we met with little opposition – I suppose we shall keep on slowly advancing but where our final objective out here is Im sure I dont know. The Colonel is still on home leave but is really due back now – I wish he would come for Im anxious to get my application for home leave sent in. Im longing to see you again dear girl and it cheers me up no end to have something to look forward to. I heard last night that Geoffrey Clarke2  has won an M.C. – he commanded my old company in the fighting last November and did most wonderfully well. Many thanks dear girl for your letters which come fairly regularly now – I hear there has been another home mail since we left the Regiment and Im hoping there will be something waiting for me Im awfully fit & the wonderful hill air suits me well and I think Im getting more cheerful than I have been lately. Goodbye dear girl.
Best love
from Stan

1 General Allenby – Sir Edmund Allenby (1861-1936) assumed command of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force at midnight June 28/29th 1917 at Cairo GHQ and within a week of assuming command had ‘departed on a visit to the front, leaving behind a slightly shaken staff.’ (Wavell, Allenby, op. cit. p.188) Later promoted Field Marshall and ennobled as First Viscount Allenby of Megiddo GCB, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, etc and numerous foreign honours.
2 Lt GP Clarke gazetted to Battalion December 4th 1914, won the MC for his part in the action before El Jib (BoR, p.74)

 

Next letter March 30 2018
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We are a fine regiment now…

Mar 4 1918 EEF

My dear old Elsie
We are off again tomorrow and are full of bustle today packing up and getting ready – we have had 3 delightful weeks of comparative comfort here and I shall be sorry to leave my tent and olive grove and many other comforts which we don’t get when fighting the Turk in those stoney hills yonder. We are a fine Regiment again now and are stronger in officers & men than we have ever been –  most of our wounded have rejoined. The Dukes visit is put off for a few weeks and I hope we shan’t be altogether disappointed for we have had a very busy time smartening up & cleaning everything since weve been out of the line – H.R.H. is going to  present the decorations recently won on this front and I expect he will give me my Military Cross so I shall have to practice pushing my chest out. Ive  just had 2 letters from you dear girl- the last dated Jan 29th many thanks they do cheer me  up no end – I expect the excitement of battle again will make me forget for a time all those horrible times of last November and December. We dined our General last night and gave him a wonderful dinner – he is a topper and got ever so cheery – Ill enclose the Menu Card and also the song we sang to the tune of “another little drink wouldn’t do us any harm” The Padre composed it!

I’ll write whenever I can – best love dear girl

from Stan

 

Next letter March 17th 2018
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Busy polishing our buttons…

[Passed by Censor 3983J
13.2.18 E.E.F.

My dear old Elsie
We are out of the line now and are in tents and dry ground near Ramleh – we have had some vile weather but now we have plenty of shelter and the sun is shining so we are ever so happy and comfortable.

And now we are busy polishing our buttons and cleaning up – it is a job to get rid of weeks & weeks accumulated mud  It is so nice to be doing a bit of peace time soldiering all in honour of H.R.H.1 – our band instruments and bugles which we haven’t seen for months have been sent up and it is such a treat to hear music again. It will be a great day for the Regiment I am on the best of terms with the General2 these days and dined with him last night and had a great time – our band played at dinner and afterwards we danced on the stone floor of the school house in which he lives –  its wonderful how childish a few men can be when they get together and the band tunes up No letters have come from you and we hear of at least two mail boats from home being lost at sea –  it is very sad Im longing to hear if my letters have ever reached you. I hope Mrs Brown is better now and that you can have more rest and Im  anxious to get further news of little Greta too

These are only a few lines to let you know I am well – I am very busy now with all these preparations and will try to send a longer letter in a few days – Best love dear girl
from Stan

1 Arthur, Duke of Connaught, 1850-1942, third son of Queen Victoria.
2 Brigadier-General Colston, GOC 233rd Brigade.

 

Next letter March 4th 2018
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a night never passes in quietness

[Passed by censor No. 39831
Feb 4 1918 E.E.F

My dear old Elsie
At last I have all your letters – many thanks dear girl – the last is dated Jan 4th but up to that time apparently none of mine had reached you but I find that all the EEF letters were held up and everybody is frightfully annoyed about it. But I hope you have heard from me long before this and that some of my descriptions of the fighting have reached you. Your letters were a great joy to me – I used to get a lot of letters but all my old friends ‘cept you have long ago forgotten me and never write now but I expect it’s my own fault for I get little time to write to them.

I told you in my last letters that I had been on leave in Cairo with Major Urwick – it did me a world of good and cheered me up no end but I still get horribly depressed now I’m back with the Regiment for I’m always thinking of the old days when I was surrounded by my pals who are nearly all killed or wounded and so my dearest girl I look forward more than ever to hearing from you and I only hope your busy life will never prevent you writing – I shall always remember how good you have been ever since I embarked on Oct 10 1914 – what ages that  seems away! I’m awfully sorry to hear Mrs Brown has been so ill again and can quite imagine how tied you are  – You musnt get too thin else there’ll be nothing left of you I get fatter and fatter in this mountain air and campaigning always seems to suit me – do you realize we are fighting in hills as high as Snowdon – so we ought to keep fit eh and are now quite accustomed to mountaineering but it’s real bad country for ones boots! Next week we go out of the line for two weeks rest and it will be a nice change – a night never passes in quietness – always there are wires coming thro’ and things to be done and an Adjutant’s life these times is a very restless one. Did I tell you our Colonel is home on leave now and Major Watson who came back from England a little while ago has gone to Cairo for a 6 weeks course so Urwick and I are running the Regiment again. I have told you I think that I hope to get home on leave about April – so do please save up a little of your holidays so that may see you either at Elm Grove or at Hale or anywhere else you like to fix up – I shall send you a cable as soon as ever I know I am really off – it all depends on the Colonel and the operations out here! If there is to be another big advance this Spring Im afraid I shall have to stay and of course I shouldn’t like to be away from the dear old Regiment when theres any heavy fighting after going through so much with them – but I hope for the best I think of little Gretchen every day and wonder how she is and I am anxiously awaiting news –  it seems a wonderfull thing to me that she should be a mother and I only hope her best dreams may be realized.

With best love to you dear girl and ever so many thanks again for your welcome letters.

Next letter February 13th 2018
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Did you hear of fighting?

Jan 11 1917 [sic] EEF

My dear old Elsie,
Every day we look out for our mails but nothing ever comes, and I haven’t had any letters for ages. The truth is we are having some very severe weather and torrents of rain – I think our old railway has been washed away in places and you’ve no idea how difficult it is to get limbers and animals along in bad weather in a country without roads – it is as much as the supply people can do just to get our rations up and until better times come I guess we shall have to wait for our letters.  I have written you several letters quite recently and I hope some of them reach you – they have been rather sad affairs Im afraid but Im feeling a bit more cheerful now –  things are straightening out a bit in the Regiment now and we’re getting a few officers and men so that makes me happier. Major Urwick as been given the D.S.O. – isnt that great news and a fine honour no[t] only for himself but for the Regiment as well – he is a very proud man of course – Major Watson1 and Duke2 who went home on leave in Sept. are in the country again and as soon as they rejoin Major Urwick and I are going down to Cairo for a weeks holiday – the General has already sanctioned it – so we shall have a royal time Im sure we are still in the line but the Turk is very quiet and keeps his distance – in spite of the weather the men are in wonderful spirits – one cheery soul outside my dug out is singing now ‘I tiddle dy Ity take me back to Blighty’ – Im sure thems  my sentiments too.

Im longing to hear what you think of all our fighting and the capture of Jerusalem – I havent been to the Holy city yet but Ive been to Jaffa Ramleh and Ludd which are ever so interesting – German banks – hotels & buildings predominate everywhere. Im afraid poor Milsom is still very ill  – Im sorry for his missus who is in New Zealand – she is such a good sort and was ever so good in India. I do hate this war. I think of little Gretchen3 every day and wonder how  she is getting on -I shall have quite a lot of new nephews & nieces to get to know when I do reach home once more.

No more news just now and its getting too dark to write and there are no candles or oil nowadays – so goodnight dear old girl with my very best love.
from Stan

1 Major DS Watson was Mentioned in Dispatches and won the DSO. He joined the Regiment as Lieutenant on April1st 1908 and left with the rank of Lt-Col on August 28th 1923 (BoR pp.73, 74, 120).
2 Capt J Duke was with the Regiment when they left for India in October 1914 and was awarded the Order of the Nile 4th Class from Egypt, and the Order of the Crown of Italy [Chevalier] (BoR pp.l3, 75).
3 Gretchen (Greta Goodland 1889-1968). Her first child was expected in January and there are several references to this event before Stanley received the news. Christine Hyde was born January 8th 1918.

Next letter January 28th 2018
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Background to the 1918 letters

The background to the war in 1918

Allenby’s capture of Jaffa and Jerusalem had met the expectations of those like Lloyd George who believed that on the path to eventual victory there must be an alternative to the attritional slaughter of the Western Front; but there were many imponderables in the first months of 1918. Bolshevik Russia was keen to sue for peace, allowing the Germans to transfer armies from the Eastern Front to France and Belgium and it was not yet clear when the arrival of United States’ forces would introduce a significant new factor to the Western Front. In March 1918 the Germans struck hard and as soon as the massive scale of this offensive was appreciated Allenby was warned that he might be required to spare some of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force for service in France; in the event two divisions left in April and eleven more British battalions and other units in May, a total of nearly 60,000 men. To replace them Allenby was sent an Indian division from Mesopotamia and many more Indian units recently recruited and lacking in battle experience. Much reorganisation and training was now needed to make the depleted E.E.F. capable of launching a full-scale offensive against a tenacious enemy defending well-prepared positions. Not that Allenby allowed the two Corps of the E.E.E to remain inactive. In late March and in late April XX Corps launched major raids to cut the railway at Amman and to convince Liman von Sanders – the hero of Gallipoli who had replaced von Falkenhayn – that when Allenby was ready his main thrust would be East of Jordan. Between the two Transjordan raids XXI Corps, whose left flank guarded the coast, planned an operation in the foothills East of Lydda designed to tear a gap in the enemy’s defences through which the cavalry would pour encircling his front line and capturing Tul Karm, the headquarters and railhead of the Turkish Eighth Army. The ‘Action of Berukin’ as the Official History austerely calls it1, was fought on April 9th, 10th and 11th. The 75th Division, crossing a wide no-man’s land,  advanced against an entrenched enemy defending a country of ravines and steep hills. Two German infantry battalions supported by their own artillery, mortars and machine guns, as well as determined Turkish units, contested every metre of ground; any gains were fiercely counter-attacked before they could be consolidated. A few villages and hilltops were taken and held but the looked-for breakthrough did not materialise and the action was called off; the 75th Division had suffered a total of 1500 casualties.2

 

Over the summer, while his army was re-grouping, Allenby matured his grand strategy. Setting his sights on Damascus, Beirut and Aleppo he intended to clear the enemy not only from Palestine but also from Syria. The lesson of the ‘Action  of Berukin’ was learnt; there would be no more attacks involving only one division. Allenby planned to strike the Turks on the coastal plain with such overwhelming force that there could be no doubt of the breakthrough which would enable the cavalry to rush north up the Plain of Sharon, over the range of hills which runs from south-east to north-west and ends at Mount Carmel overlooking Haifa and so down into the Plain of Esdraelon – all this to be accomplished in a ride of at least fifty miles in twenty-four hours. A series of elaborate deceptions confirmed Liman von Sanders in the belief that Allenby would attack in and to the  East of the Jordan Valley, but with the concentration of his forces near the coast undetected, the onslaught Allenby launched in the early hours of September 19th, initiating what is officially named the Battle of Megiddo, achieved complete surprise. The following morning von Sanders himself was lucky not to have been made prisoner when, unaware of the depth and speed of the British advance he escaped, in his pyjamas, from his headquarters in Nazareth, on the northern side of the Plain of Esdraelon, which had been entered by a troop of Gloucester Hussars.

In France the Allies had recovered the ground surrendered in the Spring and, as the Germans retreated, reached country behind the front-line areas which had not been devastated by four years of trench warfare. In the Balkans the Bulgarians crumpled on the Salonika front and sued for peace on September 29th. Meanwhile Allenby’s cavalry ranged further northwards; Haifa was entered on September 23rd, Damascus a week later, Beirut on October 8th and Aleppo on the 26th. In less than six weeks Allenby’s men had advanced 350 miles – many units covering much greater distances – and taken at least 75,000 prisoners. Threatened by invasion from both the South and the Balkans and aware of Germany’s imminent collapse, Turkey capitulated on October 30th. The political consequences of Allenby’s victory were complex and far-reaching but these were not the concern of the majority of the men under his command, the volunteers and conscripts whose duty had been done and who now longed to return home to India, Australia, the West Indies and the United Kingdom.

Stanley Goodland in 1918: Palestine & Egypt.

From January to April 1918 the 75th Division held its place in the front line due East of Jaffa and North East of Lydda (Ludd). Each infantry battalion took its turn at the front, where no man’s land was wide and activity was confined to patrolling. The 1/5 Somersets gradually returned to full strength, though there were gaps which reinforcements and the returning wounded, now restored to health, could not fill. Stanley Goodland felt deeply the loss of his friends Gerald Banes Walker, killed in the battle for El Jib, and Harry Milsom, wounded and invalided home.

The visit of H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught provided a welcome exception to the routine of divisional duties. Stanley commanded the one hundred strong Guard of Honour at the parade on March 16th at Ramleh (now Ramla). The Duke presented medals to officers and men of the 1/5 Somersets. Major Frank Urwick received the DSO for his distinguished leadership at El Mesmiyeh in November. Captains Goodland and Timms received their MCs, RSM Windows was presented with the Distinguished Conduct Medal, Sgt Collard with the Military Medal and Bar, and Privates Cridland, Greedy, Petvin and Rowseti with Military Medals.3

The 1/5 Somersets were heavily involved in the ‘Action of Berukin,’ which began on April 9th. By 0530 hrs no 4 Company had achieved its objective, the occupation of Rafat and by 0730 nos 1 & 3 Companies had seized the ridge between Rafat and Arara. Arara is ‘a rugged hill, devoid of all vegetation …  it stands out a landmark for miles around, and was a position of great natural strength.’ ‘The prominent ridge [is] fashioned principally from solid rock interspersed with enormous boulders.’ The ridge was taken ‘in the face of heavy M.G. fire, a hostile M.G. being captured by 2/Lt Franks and used to repel a counter-attack.’4 Attempts to capture the South-East peak of Arara were frustrated by the fire of three machine guns on the North-West peak and by enfilading fire from the right. Casualties were heavy. Two subalterns were killed, as were five other ranks. Among the wounded were six officers and seventy-five men.5 Elsewhere along the 75th Division front there were similar stories of merely limited objectives obtained, frequent counter-attacks by a stubborn defence which included two battalions of the German ‘Pasha II’ contingent and severe losses inflicted by well-directed machine gun, mortar and artillery fire.

When the battle was resumed early on April 10th the enemy had been reinforced and had at least six machine guns in position making the Rafat-Arara ridge untenable, so a withdrawal was made that night. On the 11th the Corps Commander, Lt Gen. Bulfin and his Chief of Staff visited the 75th Division and, having seen for themselves that no immediate breakthrough was possible ordered further offensive operations to be postponed.6

The British possession of Rafat, El Kefr and Berukin was still bitterly disputed and desultory fighting continued until September. Through the scorching summer the Somersets were either holding the forward outposts or were bivouacked in ‘rest’ areas, from which large working parties were employed in road building and the construction of a second line of defence. Artillery bombardment caused casualties. For instance at El Kefr on April 30th three men were killed and three more wounded; two more were wounded when the same village was shelled on May 27th. Night patrols were sent out, some leaving propaganda material in places the enemy was known to visit. In July the Battalion was at Deir Ballut where, on the 13th, when Stanley was temporarily in command, an estimated 600 shells were directed onto the area it occupied but the enemy’s attack on Rafat from Arara failed because ‘they were prevented by our artillery from reaching the wire’ 7 In late August the Battalion occupied the Berukin area, remaining there until September 12th, a week before Allenby’s offensive began.

Stanley’s surviving letters provide only a sketchy account of these months of hard campaigning. German and Austrian submarines continued to sink Allied ships in the Mediterranean till the end of the war; letters were damaged or lost.8 There is no reference in the War Diary to Stanley’s reconnaissance work in August but he must have been minutely examining the area in which the 233rd Infantry Brigade would be deployed in the operations on Z Day, September 19th.

Marching only by night, forbidden to light fires, moving to concealed bivouacs in orange groves, the Battalion prepared for Allenby’s greatest ‘stunt’. Two Companies were attached to the 234th Infantry Brigade with the specific task of capturing an advanced Turkish outpost covering Tabsor, about five miles inland from the coast. This mission was speedily accomplished without loss, though two men were killed and five wounded later in the day. By nightfall the re-united Battalion had advanced five miles and become part of Corps reserve.

While the British and Imperial cavalry surged North following Allenby’s spectacular breakthrough the men of the 233rd Infantry Brigade were engaged in maintaining the railway and roads in the Kalkilieh (Qalqilye) area. The most common War Diary entry for October is: ‘The Battalion continued training and bathing’. Stanley Goodland’s departure for temporary duty on the Divisional staff is duly noted, as is his return on November 9th, by which time the Battalion had moved South to Hadithe where it had spent the bedraggled Christmas of 19179. Here the news was received by wire of the German Armistice of November 11th. A party of five officers and fifteen other ranks went to Rafat-Arara to make a cemetery for those killed in the battle there. Sickness was prevalent. The Roll of Honour prints the names of twelve private soldiers who died in the last three months of 1918.10

On December 6th the Battalion was transported by train to Kantara, in the Canal Zone near to Port Said. It was one stage towards home but for Stanley, the Adjutant, the processing of demobilisation papers made for a busy Christmas.

1 Guided by Turkish nomenclature: Cyril Falls, op. cit. Part II, p.350.
2 ibid. p.357.
3 BoR, p.58.
4 2/Lt Franks was awarded the MC. Bn War Diary 22/5/1918.
5 At some stage of this campaign Major Urwick suffered a shrapnel wound. Bn War Diary for  9/4/1918, PRO WO 95 4690.
6 Falls, op. cit. part II, p.356.
7 Bn War Diary 13/7/1918.
8 28 German U-Boats were still operating in the Mediterranean in August 1918: see Halpern, op. cit. p.400.
9 see his letters, 29/10/1918, 31/10/1918 and 4/11/1918
10 BoR, pp. v-ix.

Next letter January 11th 2018
These letters have been published as
Engaged in War – the Letters of Stanley Goodland 1914 – 1919
Twiga Books, ISBN 978 09528625 2 9 £9.50 + p&p
Available from http://twigabooks.co.uk/ or Amazon
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